Nikmati . Thưởng thức . สนุก . 請享用 . Sekeca . 楽しい . Enjoy . استمتع . наслаждаться .

Easy links. And info. One place.


Flight planning.


Infra Red




For any flight (IFR or VFR)

Runway lengths at any airport you are intending to use. 

Takeoff and landing distances data in your airplane flight manual. 

For any flight (IFR or VFR) that goes beyond the vicinity of your local airport. 

Weather reports and forecasts.

Fuel requirements. 

Known ATC traffic delays

Alternatives available if you can't complete your planned flight. 

Resources include. 

The current Chart Supplements. 

Current IFR charts

Including the Area Charts if you're flying to one of those 12 busy areas they cover. 

Current VFR charts

A complete preflight from either,


Can I stop on the runway when it is wet and with a tailwind?

Is there any hint of ice or snow on the runway?

Best alternative after departutre may not be your departutre airport. 

Look for airports along the way that have instrument approaches. 

Gov. Blue or green. 

Jeppesen. Blue. 

If route near edge of chat carry adjacent. 

This also applies to approach plate book and its boundaries. 

Options at your destination. 

If pilot ahead gets blown tire on runway, crosswind, NAVAID first approach suddenly inop. 

Other runways? Approach choices?

IFR alternative. Usual reason can't land is wx. 

Look for those likely not to be under same influences. 

An airport that has lower minimums if you want to use circling or nonprecision app. 

Downwind.. so don't have to fight the wind. 

Lower elevations if you will be flying in high terrain. 

Downwind and downhill. 

Planning your route. 

WX may make no choice. 

If choice. 


You will want to consider. 

Airplanes performance at high MEAs

Where the freezing levels are 

Turbulance or downdrafts

O2 requirement. 

MEAs higher than freezing levels?

In some cases picking route can save a lot of time.

If DPs and STARs if at high altitude, include them. 

If no STAR use a feeder route that connects to the approach you expect to fly.

If there is one that fits. 

Completing the Plan. 

Started preliminary route. 

Got a preflight wx briefing. 

Do you need to list and alternative in your flight plan?

Is the wx good enought at your proposed alternate to be a legal alternate?

How long is the trip going to take?

How much fuel do you need to be legal?

You will want to consider. 

The shortest route on Victor airways. 

Any enroute ex hazards. 

The safest geography. Providing acceptable terrain for emergency landing.  Without too much terrain induced trub. 

Alt. that airplane capable of. 

Whether preferred route. 

When a Tower Enroute Clearance is available (TEC)

If you on the coasts if likely DP or STAR.

Then . Total up leg distances. 

Make a rought estimate of the time enroute.

To confirm route selected is realistic. 

When to file an alternate. 

If not instrument approach, but wx must ok. 


1 hour before until 1 hour after ET

2,000 ceiling

3 SM vis. 

If not




Better wx. alt. candidates. 

Alt. can not have instrument approaches as long as airway sais you can descend from the airway MEA to the airport. In VFR conditions. 

At the exact time arrive. 

If precision. Ceiling of 600feet, Vis. 2miles

If non precision 800 feet and 2 miles. 

Some airport/aproaches. 

Black triangle A. Non standard as alt. 

Airport mins. become mins if fly not alt. 

What wx is before go. An if nav facility is working. 

Sometime NA shows up only for one approach. 

Alt. if RAIM not available. 

Work with mag. convert wind to. Only make once. Wind. 

POH ffor time to climb and end.

IFR fuel reserves. 

Account for any known ATC delays

Reach your intedned destination

Fly to your alterante

Fly for 45 minutes more at normal crusing speed. 

Take as much fuel as possible. Can avoid having to report minimum fuel. 

Most domestic 7223-1

If Int. or domestic R-NAV ICO FAA 7233-4

 Box 3. / G GPS right code. 

Listed in AIM.

Block 7 . cruising . just first alt. 

8. DP if STAR.(name transition code at the end) . if same airway not intermediate.  If GPS. waypoints. 

15. Alt. 

12. Time to dry tanks

19 Required fuel. 

13. Alt. If not instr. or wx not meet 123

 Listed item  16 ICAO format. 

18. RNAV capability.  E.g NAV/RNV1E2A1 does for you, once entered info. 

You should submit IFR through or

To the nearest AFSS 



If no other means available. But if frequency busy may not be able to accomodate. 

At least 30 mins before departure to avoid delays. 

You may also file a flight plan in the air if you are on a 

Flight outside of controlled airspace

And you want to proceed into IFR conditions

In controlled airspace. 

VFR fligth 

And you expect IFR conditions enroute in controlled airspace. 

A composite flight plan. 

If part IFR VFR

Change over point in remarks. Whether starting out VFR or IFR. 

You contact 

You contact Flight Service at the changeover point

Regardless of IFR or VFR

If VFR first five mins before changeover call Flight Service again

For you IFR clearance

And close your VFR flight plan.

If the IFR portion is frist

You will usually be cleared to your changeover point

When arrive VFR cancel with ATC. Call Flight service.

Open your VFR flight plan. 

If beyond request further IFR clearance, at least five minutes before. 

If not before you must enter a holding pattern, as published at the clearance limit, or on the radial or course to the fix usig standard turns. 

So now ready payoff to all your prep.

IFR cross-country. 

Again if you destination has a n instrument approach, required to file alt. if the desitnation wx for 1 hour before or after includes ceilings below 2,000 feet or less than 3SM vis. 


A great WX site for local flying in UKGB. 

Met office aviation UKGB. . FAA requirements met for pre flight briefing. . FAA requirements met for pre flight briefing. 

The Aviation Digital Service (ADDS)

The Weather Channel's maps

 And there are more helpful sites online everyday

Fly the correct altimeter setting as below 18000 feet there are only 500feet of separation between IFR and VFR altitudes. 

Your altimeter only needs to be 1/2inch off for you to be 500feet off. 

From low to high clear the sky. 

If too low a number in altimeter setting hands will read to low.

IFR and IFR 1000feet apart. 

Class A starts at 18000 29.92

The flight levels are also pressure altitudes. 

A properly set altimeter is key for a safe approach. 

From high to low look out below. 

Check altitude as cross FAF. 

Can extremely high pressure with very low temperatures. 

If then NOTAM. If over 31.00

Below 28.00. If can't actually set in. Not recommended flight. 

Temp work the same as pressure. 

High to low look out below. 

Low to high clear the sky. 

Not issue generally for approaches. 

Only in mountains, high above reporting stations and cold. Could be a lot lower. Very careful. 

'Wind off (not as in wind that blows, but to turn')

PLEASE FEEL FREE TO SEND ANY CORRECTIONS TO THESE NOTES TO US. These notes are not for others use. These notes are personal. 

Flight training and proficiency.

haGeneral cockpit lighting enough to see smsm

King Schools. 

Safety tips and tools. 

MEA and desire to stay above the weather, may mean flying higher than VFR. 

Hypoxia. Impairs night vision. 

Should learn own symptoms for hypoxia so go for a ride in an altitude chamber. 

Cabin pressure of 12500feet and below. 

Above 12500 up to 14000feet for periods of more than 30 mins the pilot must use oxygen. 

Above 14000 the pilot must all the time. 

Above 15000 oxygen must be available to all pax, not have to use but advise to. 

Many pilots feel these are pretty minimal and actual physiological requirements might dictate that you use 02. 

At lower altitudes and fora  longer time, than the rules require especially at night. 

Hypoxia cousin hyper ventilation. 

Breath to fast get rid of too much carbon dioxide because stimulates to breath. Lightheadiness tingling extremities. Can incapacitate.. Could pass out which probably start your pax to start hyperventilating.. 

Cure breath more slowly, some say paperbag.. make sure sick bag is empty. 

Avoiding other aircraft. 

Be at right place not intersection low wx ATC may not be able to see. 

If at say something like 

"Dulles Tower, Cessna 359 Echo Sierra, at the intersection of Yankee two and runway one liner right, ready for departure'

Scanning 10degree sectors.. 

As trained to read from left to right. (unless Arabic I guess :))

And pause at each sector for at least a second. 

As you approach airport turn on lights visible as possible. In case turned down clouds..

Climb descend on centerline count on ATC.. older pilots may say not.. but do.  Then eyeballs out cockpit when clouds part.  

Physiology flying higher and the regulations. 

Arriving IFR at a Non-Towered Airport.

Many non-towered airports have instrument approaches.

Especially since the intro. of GPS. 

"Change to advisory freqency approved" - still guarentteing you sep. from other IFR. 

But there could be a lot of VFR airports in the airport area.

Non-towered most of the time class G. 

From the surface up to 700feet AGL.  Where the minimums are 1 SM, and clear of clouds. 

So you could be making a typical nonprecision approach 

That has a 1 mile visibility minimum

White there could be other airplanes flying legally VFR in and around the airport. 

Avoiding VFR

Listen to WX much less likely with 400ft ceiling. 

Listen to ATC before they hand you over they will normally tell you what they see on radar. 

If not ask them for it. 

When first on CTAF before talk. 

Listen to other aircraft making traffic calls. 

Do not usse "Traffic in the are please, advise"

Might say "Mt. Comfort UNICOM, Cessna 359 Echo ierraa is five miles east on a straight-in IL approach

to runway 25, descending through 2,600 feet for a full top landing. Request airport advisory"

If business hours of the local UNICOM operator they might tell you if there is traffic in the pattern. To one of the few airports where an FSS provides Local Airport Advisory Service.

The FSS will tell you of any traffic they are aware of. 

If you don't get a response to your request for advisories. 

Try asking for an airport advisory from any aircraft in the vicinity of your destination. 

There may be someone who has just departed who can give you info. 

May be planes there not on the right frequency. IFR does not give priority over another aircraft in the pattern. 

Closing your IFR flight plan. 

If tower the tower closes. 

If no tower contact FSS by radio or phone. 

ATC if they can hear you on the ground or by phone. 

Or an ATC frequency shown on the approach plate if any. 

You can also cancel with ATC if you are still airborne. 'Cancel IFR"

If sure. 

Will cancel radar advisory should request it. 

After cancel should promptly change to the appropriate 

Air/ground frequency

VFR transponder code, 

and VFR altitude or flight level. 

In any case important to clear ASAP, but if not sure only cancel in the ground. If missed approach won't have protection if not in ground and likely not launch SAR ops. if cancelled. 

Practice approaches at non towered


May be flying against or crossing the path of traffic in the pattern. In some cases the approach minimums may put you at, or even under the pattern altitude. 

So when choosing safety pilot. 

Be sure they understand they are responsible for ensuring that you avoid VFR traffic, and 

Establish ground rules as to. 

What you expect them to tell you about traffic

When to suggest breaking off the approach, and

When an how they will take control if it is necessary to avoid other aircraft. 

Don't expect IFR in VFR most VFR not know the routings, so make good and clear announcements of positions and intentions. 

'Cessna 359 Echo Sierra, 5 miles south of the airport, descending through 2,400 feet for 1,500 feet. We'll be overflying the airport midfield, south to north, then making climbing right turn back to the south."

Best see and avoid and report position accurately and you will fir in much more smoothly. 

LAHSO aware of.  Land and hold short operations.  Celing 1000ft not 3 sm. Therefore only VFR. 

Know exist at destination prepares to accept or decline a LAHSO clearance. 

Wake turbulence. 

Strongest heavy, slow, and clean. 

Can roll inverted. At 2000ft can recover difficult at 50ft. 

Vortices sink. Fly above flight path to avoid. 

Caution light quartering tailwind, upwind vortex could hang right over the runway. 

Crosswinds more than 5kts cause the vortices to move quickly and break up. 

You can visualize where they will in order to avoid. 

On glide slope when can't see, on or slightly above but never below. 

If no glide path AIM 3degree or above. 

Distance runway miles multiple by 3 to find altitude in hundreds feet, 5 miles out, 1500feet, 4 miles 1200 feet as long as above MDA. 

Land beyond the larger aircraft touch down point. Or where see all the tire marks, a little beyond touchdown markings. 

When taking off. Lift away before departure point preferably upwind. Allow time. 


Allow extra time if light quartering tailwind is present. Plus as above. 

Larger touch and go. taking off. 2 mins allow. 

As PIC. You do not have to accept a clearance to takeoff. 


High speed. 

Wait until slow down. 

If shorter runway. 

Nose down to put pressure on front wheel. 

Flaps but flap handles not gear handle. 

If crosswind use best crosswind technique so not go off runway. 

Visual glideslope indicators. 

VASI. 4nm 10degrees either side. Especially at night. 

Normal 3° . May be as high as 4.5°

2Bar VASI. Most common. 2, 4 or 12 units. If 2 on left if 12 both. 

2 Bar. On Glidepath Far red over right you're alright. Red over red your dead. 

White over white out of sight. 

3Bar VASI. 2 glide paths. Lower middle and upper lower and middle upper and middle. 

6 or 16. 16 on both sides. 

Upperglide path upper lights red, white, white

Lower glide path, red, red, white. 

Red, red, red, below.

White, white, white above. 

Upper glidepath for like Boeing 747, pilot high. 

The lower glide path usually 3 degree, upper 1/4 steeper.  

If red.. all do immediately. 

PAPI. Precision approach indicator. 

5 miles day

20 miles night. Visual range. 

Single row. 

Slightly high three on right white, slightly low three red lights left. 

Red low. 

White high. 

Pulsuating systems.  PVASI. 

Pulsuating VASI

Visual 4nm day

10nm day. 

White OK 

Red low. 

Above. pulsating white. On white

Below red, pulsate more pulsate. 

Not confuse with other nights or rail lights that flash. 

Tri-Coloured Vasi. (Rare)

Green, red amber. 

1 half day.  . High Amber. Low Red, Good Green. 

Check for self briefing. See which. 

Stable descent to touchdown. 

After you land. 

Hold lines

Holding four yellow. Two solid two dashed. Same side of airplane may approach without stopping. 

Towered clearance to cross. Non towered wait no conflict before cross. 

Enhance tax way centre line. 

Normal single yellow line down the middle. 

Parallel lines Enhanced maximum 100ft prior to holding position. 

ILS critical area hold lines. 

WX 800ft less ceiling and or 2nm vis. 

PArrael lines connected by solid, look railway track with some cross-ties missing.  When critical area is protected make sure not. 

Sometimes ariport markings can be hard to see at night, so see lights. 

Mandatory markings. 

Red with white lettering. 

Cannot go any further unless ATC tells you to do so. 

Taxiway signs. 

Are black with yellow lettering. Tell you name of the taxi way on. Black square your there. 

A yellow sing with black lettering, black arrow which tells you which way that taxi way goes. 

It's not over until it's over. Successfully until parking spot. 


The different types or ice. 

C172 not certified known icing. 

Review the wx to know where may occur. 

Know when to make change in flight plan due to rapidly changing conditions. 

Preflight deice. 

Even certificated planes can become overcome by icing. 


Supercool large drops some not certified, for. Aircraft specific cues for recognizing these hazards during flight. 

Activate at first indications icing deice equipment if have. Many systems not during take off and landing . 

Wings. Reduced lift, increases drag, increases stalling speed.


Ice on tailplane. 

Can cause a tailplane stall. 

Tailplane thinner surface area so a small protuberance within your view can be used as an ice evidence probe. 

If susceptible to tailplane icing, careful negative angle of attack, and down-force on the tail, such as deploying flaps or increasing speed. 

It can be difficult to  see tailplane. 

May consider a no flap landing. 

Symptoms that warn. 

Elevator control pulsing, oscillation or vibrations.

Abnormal nose-down trim change. 

Any other undusal abnormal pitch anomalies.

  Which can result in pilot induced oscillations

Reduction or loss of elevator force

  Control would move nose-down if unrestrained. 

Sudden uncommanded nose-down-pitch. 

IF you encounter any of these symptoms. 

Retract flaps, 

Nose up elevator pressure. 

Increase airspeed for reduced flap extension setting. 

Apply sufficient power for aircraft configuration and conditions. 

Make nose down pitch changes slowly. 

Even in gusty conditions.

If circumstances allow. 

Is using pneumatic deicing system

Operate several times to try to clear tail plane stall. 

Once encounter.

Will increase with increased airspeed and possibly with increased power setting at the same flap setting. 

Autopilot can mask. 

Disengage sometimes to check. 

Autopilot may fly into a stall. 

Tail plane stall can be unrecoverable. 

Prop icing. 

Reduces thrust. sty spinner inner radius. 

Alcohol normally.

Or heated strips. 

Pitot heat on. 

Stall warming systems. 

Can also be affected. 

Even if may not work as different stall speed due to ice. 

Some antic icing. 



Warm air. 

Or heat. 


Do to shape. 

Normally not anti ice. 

Communication or damage to other parts. 

Own limitations and aircraft is an essential part of being a safe and competent instrument pilot, especially when icing conditions are present. 





External pressures

(Four main categories of risk in flight)

Pilot. 6 Instrument last six months. 

Holding and intersecting and tracking navigation courses. 

(Many pilots feel a few within the last 30 days)

Proficiency avionics. 

Practise higher minimums. 

Such as NDB when not flown in years. 

Physiological situation you will be in at the end of the flight.  The approach and landing phase. 


Enough redundancy. 

Nav. Com. And other equipment. 


Read flight instrument easily at night. 

General cockpit lighting enough to see small print at night. 


Mountains etc. 


Avionics suitable and current data cards. 




Time of day. 

Will icing be a factor?

Is aircraft capable  of flying in icing?

Will Ts be a factor. 

Are the ceiling and visibility acceptable given the facilities available?

Will the wind and direction force you to use an approach with higher minimums?

Will the combination of crosswinds and slick runway create a situation that your aircraft cannot handle?

Will a non-precision approach be required?

Are you up to flying one safely?

Are you willing to circle to land?

If you do decide to make a circling approach, how are you going to make sure you hold your altitude while looking out the window, espeically at night?

Do these conditions meet your personal minimums?

Several flashlights good batteries. 

Many airlines prohibit circling approaches. 

So even though it is legal to fly, marginal but acceptable may lead to unacceptable and risky. United Airlines, flights where every one legal, but the cumultive affect pushes to dangerous situation. 

Permission to divert even when legal. 

Consider cumalitie affect when setting own minimums. 


Perhaps insidious area lies in external pressures of a flight, because this is one risk factor that can cause you to ignore all the other risk factors. 

Pushed to laungh when shouldn't?

Within few weeks. Tune up, if necessary fly with an instructor. 

Familiar with plane if renting. 

Equipment suitable. 

A week before flight look wx. 

Flexible travel dates, day early or later. 

Finally remember even the airlines do not always make it thorugh. 



Blizzard conditions. 

If airlines do, don't expect to get thorugh. 

Take overnight bag. 

Brief pax, so don't push wx, or mechanical. 

Stop short if necessary. 

Fun, comfortable and stress-free. 





External Pressures. 

C in Care Consequences. 

What is changing?

What is going to happen next?

Consequences of these changes. 

As soon as you are in the cruise figure our GS and fuel on landing. And if they agree with flight log, just monitor for changes in the future. 

Slower.. later.. lower fuel maybe.. more fatigued. .. winds different than forecast. 

Land refuel expand circle alternatives. 


E.g XM satellite wx. It is an invaluable tool. 

If not in cockpit. Can ask leave frequency for about 5 mins. FSS or ATIS. and comments pilots on frequency. Monitor wx one of most important jobs.  IFR. 

Icing. Monitor air temp at level flying. Take note before entering clouds and should know the altitude of the freezing level of temp above and below colder can be below. 

Understanding the synoptic wx stituation critically improtant. 

If you need to deviate. Don't wait until emergency. 

Alert listen to clearneces with ATC. Alternative plan if not acceptable to you. 

Probably the most important things is your own performance. Recognise in own behaviour. 


Missing radio calls. 

Asking repeats

A slow response time, or 

Missing key steps in a procedure. 

Use the autopilot. 

Asking radar vectors. 

Taking an easy VFR or benign IFR divert.

Instead of continuing to a hard IFR desinations. 

What if scenarios, 

Such as. 

What if I miss the approach?

What if that front moves quicker or slowers?

What if my groundspeed gets slowers?

You should anticipate changes and figure out the consequences, so that 

If they do happen

You will be ready. 



Fuel know alternatives. 

Always have an alternative course of action. 

Begin radius length of trip as increases radius shortens. 

Mentally prepare to alt. 

Escape plan keep updating. 

Again here is modern tech can be of great help. 

E.g GPS and moving map. 

With or without alt. airport. 

If not tools know alternatives. 

ALWAYS HAVE AN ALTERNATIVE COURSE OF ACTION in case thigns don't work out as planned. 


Pilots are hard-wired to accomplish what they set out to do. 

Admit when things change  (e.g minimums)  do something now instead of later. 

As they really are and when things change change your plan.

Your minimums fuel and wx. 


As closer pressure to increase. 

Goal oriendtated behavior. 

The same things that make you the wonderful achiever that you are can be a risk factor. 

Keep your goal-orientated behavior in mind, and manage your own pressure to continue.

Manage risks. 

Timely decisions.

Accomplish safely. 


Keep it under control. 

Don't hit anything. 

In clouds. 

#1 Keep it under control. Lots of practise. 

IMC as much as possible. 

If none safety pilot or instructor. 

Partial panel work. 

Instructor. Some unusual recoveries. 

ATC second nature. 

#Don't hit anything. 

Airplanes and terrain. 

Keep track and follow current clearances, what heading and altitude you are to fly 

Where you are supposed  tobe going, and what frequency you are supposed to be talking on. 

Heading bug. 

ADF could alt. 

Also read back all items from clearance. 

Headings, altitudes and frequency changes. 

IFR not decend until know where you are. 

Positivea wareness of where you are, what direction headed and the terrain around you.

The GPS in your Skyhawk.

Can best help on map page. 

Even terrain. 

Helps you know for sure where you are. 

Even if not flying instrument can OBS centre line. and distance read out. 

Floowing look and feel much smarter. 

Lessene stress and add a lot of safety. 

Follow these rules and you will amost ensure a long career with equal number of departures and approaches. 

Fly with us.

Want to share a flight with us or backseat message us.  We can book a plane and go fly. :)

We currently fly out of Torrance airport and Biggin Hill London. 

We may also be able to arrange you to fly with Jogja flying club


S Can say fuel remaining in m

Some notes on Instrument flying. 

For those doing their FAA instrument rating or considering joining us in our flying community.  

These notes are casual student notes and are in no way to be used as accurate information, please refer to authorized flight material for up to date information. These notes are not to be used by others for flight planning or operational procedures and are in no way intended as that. They are purely a revision guide for personal use. 

A on chart = circling approach. 

Reversed type L = pilot controlled lighting. 

Military Tacan, means DME available. e.g Chan 100. 

Remember when entering holding stay in protected area. This defines how you can enter, e.g tear drop, parallel or direct entry. 

Approach speed Cat A aircraft? 

NA = Can not file as alternate


How low can I go? 

How far can I go? 

Which way do I go, on a missed approach?

Can't memorize all so have chart available to look at easily. 

C172 stadard 90 Kt approach speed. 

Standby frequency? 

ID frequency. 

Number two OBS? 

Timer set up. 

Audio panel as check list to check got everything. 

T inverted triangle = non standard IFR take off mins. or departure minimums 

A in triangle = non standard alt minimums. (need to look up before using)

White L in black oval = frequency pilot controlled lighting frequency. 

Military chan. TACAN = DME available. 

MSA lower left of chart. 

Profile view. See what turn to. say after turning VORTAC, to say MDA. Cat. A maybe 1 and 1/4 visibility. 

G1000. Difference load and activate. 


NDB approach important as hundreds of airports only have NDB. 

Again reverse L = lights pilot controlled. 

Black reverse print again = pilot controlled. 

Inop. not Cat C. Cessna 172 not Cat C. 

Tune and ID. Leave on when NDB turn down. 

Set up alternatives. 

All bases covered. 

Audio panel. 

Before landing check list. 

ATC Procedures. 

Side step maneuver when  1,200 feet or less separation between parallel runways but only one ILS approach.

Clearance such as 

'Cleared ILS runway 30L approach, side-step to runway 30R'

You are expected to start the side-step maneuver as soon as you see the runway enviornment. 

Parallel ILS Approaches if the distance between runways is 2,500 feet or more. 

Diagnoal distance, kept between.  Min. 1.5 miles or 2 miles depending on how far apart the runways are. 

Therefore essential fly the centre line. And the airspeed for spacing. 

Simultaneous Parallel ILS Approaches

If the distance is 4,300 feet and 9,000feet.

No Transgression zone.  Monitor can order left or right break out vector or climb or descend. 

As pilot in command you can always turn the procedure down. 

Simultaneous close parallel approaches. 

If 3,000feet, but do not have at least 4,300 feet between them. 

Can side by side but must hav Precision Monitor (PRM) procedures. 

Pilots only allowed on to transmit on primary but must listen on both, in case stuck mike or break out.. 

Requirements have met

Simulaneous converging instrument approaches. 

Timed approaches from a holding fix.

Rarely used. 

1000ft intervals. 

Peals them off from the bottom. 

Like a California freeway on-ramp. 

Although the controller will not specifically state that being used. 

The assiging of a time to depart the

Final apporach fix, or

Outer maker inbound

Indicates that ATC is using timed approaches. 

Comm. failure. 

Although chatter comforting when all can see is a mix of grey. 

Could have

Inability to receive, transmit, audio panel failure or complete radio failure. 

Correct frequency.  Check. 

Could have missed handoff or flown out of range.  Check chart or get FSS frequency. 

If still not troubleshoot. 

R receive RX on G100. signal too weak to break squelch. 

Disable squelch.

Other radio. If two. 

G1000 if failure pilot directly to Com 1. transmitter. 

Stuck mic? 

TX G1000 continuously lit. 

If you still have a problem you will want to see if not transmitting

Handheld cockpit mic. 

Carrier only. Radio transmitting but no voice. Headset plugged in. Or other radio. Or cockpit handheld mic. 

If none of steps get working squawk 7600.  They can give you instructions and you can press ident.  ATC may also reach to you on VOR, VORTAC, NDB, Localizer, or FSS frequencies or even last assigned frequency. 

If no response they will begin to clear the airspace around you. Key here is making sure complete failure before putting in 7600. 

Although rare. Plan should take into account. 

At any given point know what route to fly. 

What altitude to fly, and when to continue beyond a clearance limit. 

IF VMC stay VMC land nearest. 

Let know ASAP as they will be protecting the airspace for you. 

If in clouds follow rules, no emergency. 


Some TPP published. Instead FARs

Route to Fly if you loose comm. 

1.  Route assigned. 

2. If given vectors, direct route from where you lose comm to where you are being vectored

3. Route ATC has said to expect

4. Route filed in flight plan

Lost comm. alt. 

Fly at highest of following. 

1. Last assigned altitude

2. Minimum IFR altitude

3. Altitude ATC has said to expect. 

When to leave clearance limit. 


As close as possible ETA. 

Fly with lost comm. 

Can shoot anyone. 


If arrive IAF before you EFC or ETA

Enter holding , Maintain altitude, Wait for your EFC/ETA. 

If no holding pattern make direct entry to a standard right-hand holding pattern, on the course that brought you to the the fix. 

If you arrive over the IAF after your EFC/ETA. 

Just keep trucking and sttart the approach

ATC will be expecing you. 

If need to divert and not filed route. 

Fly via published and MEA. 

EFC escape hatch in case loose. Which is why you want to ask if not . 

Alterantive solutions. 

Hand held if packed still communicating not 76..

Trusty cellphone. If safety in flight issue. 

As PIC all available resources if problem in the air. . 

Still unnerves. 

Know what to expect handle gracefully. 

Complete radio failure. 

Keep voltmeter and ammeter in your scan, because

If your alternator fails your radio and other electronic equipement will soon follow.  

How long have depends how soon notice. 

G1000 C172 standby battery bus at least 30 mins. 

Hand held radio. 

Phone.  121.5. Hand held VOR capabilities. Nav. 

 Chart supplement. 


911. last resort may get you through to a person who can help. if not phone numbers. 

Hand held GPS. 

Dead reckoning. 

Part of preflight wx, escape hatch, that could 

VFR chart may save your life. Alway carry. 

If by the coast let down through cloud deck where terrain not issue. 

So even if you do, you actually have quite a few options. 

IFR Procedures and reports. 

Smooth coordination. 

Change sectors. arears responsibility. 

Read new frequency back. 

Out loud until fix radio or write down. 

Change ASAP new controller may be waiting  for you with instructions or info. 

Good idea leave the old in standby if don't get response. 

New frequency introduce yourself with your call sign and altitude. 

'Centre, Cessna 359 Echo Sierra, seven thousand'

Response would be 'Cessna 359 Echo Sierra, Roger.' 

If no response can get another aircraft to relay.  If still nothing can go back to previous frequency. 

If no coverage will tell to make frequency change at specific time. 

Frequencies printed on the enroute chart. 

G1000 can use Neartest ATC to get same info. 

Cessna 359 Echo Sierra is calling in the blind, 10 miles east of Hill City VORTAC at seven thousand, seeking a center frequency for this area'.

Don't be embareassed about doing this. 

You are required if two radios to monitor 121.5. For security reasons. 

Plenty do this. 

SAMHAP.  Good remember all reports. 

S Safety of flight

A Avionics. 

M Missed approach. Request assistance alt. or an other apron. 

H Holding. 

A Altitude

P Performance.  500fpm Speed +- 5 kts or 5%.

Remember SAMHAP and you will remember reports whether in radar contact or not. 

If not in radar contact. 

3 Cs. 

Compulsory reporting points

Corrections to ETA next reporting point, when error of 3 minutes 

Crossing the FAP inbound. Which is the FAF on a nonprecision approach and OM or fix used in lieu of the OM on a precision approach.

You can remember that these three C's are for when ATC can not see you. 

Any time the safe outcome of the flight is in doubt declare an emergency. 


You can say you at minimum fuel. 

Can say fuel remaining in minutes. 

Fulfilling your end of partnership with ATC will go a long way, ATC  are there to help.

Chart Supplement. 

Valuable tool as the approach charts don't have the room to tell you everything.

E.g the little star* does nto operate continuously. +over+ daylight saving one hour earlier than shown. 

Airspace such as class D, reverting to class G. 

Preferred IFR routes.

Minimise route changes. Help plan. 

Aid orderly management of air traffic on federal airways. 

Preferred route may include a STAR if destination has one.  Don't need to file the STAR but will make your life and controllers easier , min. delays. 


Put TEC in notes. 

2 hours or less. 

East and West coast.

In Chart Supplement. 

(3) Prop planes speeds less than 250kts. 

Carry in flight bag. Efficient. 


The met section in the AIM lists the names of the current contract vendors who provide this free service. 

Pilots with current medical certiication can access the (866) 936 6286.

FltPlan free to qualified pilots, it is funded by the owners, by revenue from advertising. 

In the opinion of many pilots, provides, a better format, better information than the government subsidized programs. And it meets all the FAA requirements for a preflight briefing. 

ADDS. Excellent for icing conditions. Does NOT mee the FAA requirements for a preflight briefing.



Personal Minimums. 

FAA minimums personalize. 

VFR 3 statute miles. 

But used to say 14 miles. Should fly not until skill probably. 

Instrument skills more perishable. 

Create safe margins transition from VMC to IMC and IMC to VMC. And dealing with less than perfect airport/runway encironments. 

Should you increase your personal minimums?

Begin with may want IR minimums only a few knots of crosswind. 

Personal minimums are dynamic. 

If not very proficient may

ILS 200ft  increase and 1/2 mile vis. 

A non precision by 400feet and 1 mile vis. 

Shooting approach third time.. maybe not. Twice enough.. careful. 

Some 24 hours if significant argument and going flying.. reduce impulsive. 

Marginal in two or more cat. don't go. 

HardIFR no go. 


Only reduce min. when a positive event has occurred. 

Not lower while planning or worse after taking off which defeats whole purpose of having personal minimums. 

License to be more conservative. 

Don't meet their standards means 

cancelling flight.   

Experience in actual instrument conditions. 

Total instrument experience

Familiarity with the airplane and the route.

Recency of instrument experience. 

These are simply personal study notes not to be used and not for flight planning or to be used for flying etc.. 

ACS. Airman certified standards.  Almost open book. 

Have confidence in own abilities. 

Good nights sleeps. 

"Aviation in itself is not inherently dangerous. But to an even greater degree than the sea, it is terribly unforgiving or any carelessness, incapacity or neglect. "

Continue to have the best training in the world. :) 

Some useful flash cards.